Editorial guidelines

[Version française]

     The texts submitted to the journal Music as Act will be written according to the following editorial guidelines. For all other matters not covered below, contributors will refer to the format adopted in previous issues.

Text formatting

     Document margins will be set as follows:

  • Top: 2.5 cm;
  • Bottom: 2.5 cm;
  • Left: 2.5 cm;
  • Right: 2.5 cm.

     The text will be written in Times New Roman, font size 12, single-spaced. Paragraphs will be justified, with an indentation (positive indentation of the first line) set at 0.75 cm, with no line breaks between paragraphs.

     Headings/subheadings will be numbered and formatted as follows, with no more than three levels of headings:

  • Level 1: Bold, numbering 1, 2, etc.;
  • Level 2: Italics and bold, numbering 1.1, 1.2, etc.;
  • Level 3: Italics, numbering 1.1.1, 1.1.2, etc.

     The headings "Introduction" and "Conclusion" will be formatted in the same way as level 1 headings, without numbering.

     Footnotes will be formatted in font size 10 and numbered continuously. Bibliographical references will be given in footnotes – and not in the main text. References to notes should be placed at the end of sentences where possible.

     Short quotations (fewer than three lines) will be included directly in the main text and presented in inverted commas. Long quotations (more than three lines) will be presented without inverted commas, in font size 10, with a left indentation of 0.75 cm. An indentation (first line indentation) should be set at 1.5 cm. Changes and breaks within quotations will be indicated by square brackets [ ].

     The captions under illustrations will be in font size 10. They will be centred and take the following form:

  • for a musical example: [Ex. 1: Caption for this example with, in this order, First name and Last name of the composer, Title of the work, “Title of the piece”, b. XX-XX];
  • for all other illustrations (diagrams, tables, graphs, etc.): [Fig. 1: Precise caption of the figure].

     Where appropriate, the full reference to a source cited within the caption will be given in brackets at the end of the caption – and not as a footnote.

     References to examples and figures in the main text will be indicated precisely as "(Example 1)" or "(Figure 1)" (in brackets), without giving a page number – as the exact place cannot be determined in advance.

     The author will highlight unusual fonts in colour. For music fonts, the author will preferably use the Bach font.

Language and typography

     The texts submitted may be made in either French or English. Wherever possible, contributors are encouraged to submit texts in French. However, the texts submitted in English will be given equal consideration and the review procedures will be the same for both languages.

     The article will conform to the typographical usage of the language chosen. As a reminder, here are some important differences between French and English:

Punctuation ( ; : ! ? )Preceded by a blank space

Not preceded by a blank space

Inverted commas« en français »“in English”
Nested inverted commas« comme “cela” en français »“like this ‘way’ in English”
Capital lettersLe titre d’un ouvrageThe Title of a Book
Footnote call numberBefore the punctuationAfter the punctuation


     Quotations in languages other than that of the article will be translated into the language of the article in the main text. They will appear in their original version as a footnote, in italics.

     As a general rule, all terms borrowed from a language other than the language of the text will be written in italics - with the exception of terms that have become part of everyday language such as crescendo, pizzicato, scherzo, etc.

     The use of inclusive writing is left to the discretion of the author, according to his or her choice but will always be done in a systematic way. In general, the editorial team suggests that, where possible, degendered wording should be used - for example, "human-caused"  rather than "man-made", etc.

     References to centuries will be in Roman numerals and small capitals in French (xixe siècle), and in Arabic numerals in English (19th century).

     Capital letters will be accented.

References in the main text

     The references cited will appear in footnotes – and not in the main text. In these references only – and not in the main body of the text – the last names of the authors cited will be written in small capitals. The same applies to references in the bibliography.

     The first occurrence of a reference will be complete – for example, in the case of a book [Forname Surname, Title of the Book, town, publisher, year, pp. XX-XX.]. In the footnotes, the authors will make sure to keep the order of the forname and surname reversed with respect to the references in the bibliography. For the rest, they will follow the indications concerning the references in the bibliography.

     For the second and subsequent occurrences of a reference, the author will use an abbreviated form– and not the Latin abbreviations op. cit., ibid. etc. – according to the following examples:

  • [Surname, Short Title of the Book, pp. XX-XX.];
  • [Surname, “Short Title of the Chapter or Article”, pp. XX-XX.].

     For a reference to a source that is only available online, the author will refer, immediately after the reference, to the website address and date of access as follows: [urlofthesource, accessed on DD/MM/YYYY].

References in the bibliography

     A bibliography at the end of the article or the book review will list the various references cited in the text, in alphabetical order.

     The bibliographic list will be presented as follows:

  • [Surname, Forename, Title of the Book, town, publisher, year. [Any additional information, for instance 1st ed., year.]];
  • [Surname, Forename, “Title of the Chapter”, in Forename Surname (ed.), Title of the Book, town, publisher, year, pp. XX-XX.];
  • Forename, “Title of the Article”, Journal Name VOL/No. (year), pp. XX-XX.].

     For titles in French, only the first letter of the title will be capitalized (for example, La génération romantique, L’analyse musicale aujourd’hui, etc.), unless a particular typographical usage requires it (for example, Essai sur Beethoven, L’univers musical de Chopin, etc.). For titles in English, all nouns and adjectives will be capitalized (for example, A Generative Theory of Tonal Music, The Rhythmic Structure of Music, etc.). This rule also applies to titles mentioned directly in the main text.

     In the case of a multi-authored publication, the following format will be used, both in the bibliography and in the footnotes: [Surname1, Forename1, Forename2 Surname2, and Forename3 Surname3]. For a reference with more than four authors, the term "and al." will be used. All authors up to and including the third will be listed in the order given in the original publication.

     For translations or reprints, the year of first publication in the original language will be indicated in square brackets: for example, [DAHLHAUS, Carl, The idea of Absolute Music, trans. en. Roger Lustig, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1989. [1st ed. in German under the title Die Idee der absoluten Musik, Cassel, Bärenreiter, 1948.]].

     For a reference with a title and a subtitle ([Title: Subtitle] or [“Title: Subtitle”])”]), the separation will always be made with a colon, regardless of the typographical form used in the original publication.

     The city of the publishing house will be given in its English translation – if available – in articles and book reviews written in English (for example, London instead of Londres, Roma instead of Rome, Wien instead of Vienne, etc.). When the city is not mentioned in the work cited, the term s.l. (sine loco) will be indicated. Where the date is absent, the term n.d. (no date) will be indicated.

Other types of sources cited

     For other types of sources (audio recordings, videos, historical sources, etc.), the same principle will be adopted, i.e. references in footnotes, full reference on the first occurrence, abbreviated reference on subsequent occurrences. All these references may be listed at the end of the article, after the bibliography.

     Here are a few examples for guidance:

  • [Composer, Forename, Title of the Work, musicians {soloists, orchestra}, dir. Forename Name of the conductor, rec. JJ/MM/AAAA, medium {CD, LP, tape, etc.}, publisher, index number, year of publication.];
  • [Name of the artist or group, “Title of the Song”, in Album Title, publisher, index number, publishing year.].

     Audio or audiovisual files can only be included in an article as footnotes referring to materials hosted on an external website. The author will take special care to ensure that the hyperlinks are permanent.

Musées de la Ville de Strasbourg
Opéra National du Rhin
Conservatoire de Strasbourg